Monday, December 30, 2019
Building a gaming computer may be an intimidating endeavour, but in all actuality with a little hard work anyone can be a whiz at putting together a gaming computer. Why build a custom gaming PC? Well itÃ¢â¬â¢ll save money, and give the builder a great experience. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s always fun to learn how different things work. The price of a top of the line retail gaming computer runs from two thousand on up to five thousand dollars and beyond, a monitor alone could cost one thousand dollars. The two types of gaming PC builds are , the hardcore gamer build which will cost a little extra, and the casual gamer build which isnÃ¢â¬â¢t as expensive; moreover, the steps in building a gaming PC are: creating a budget, researching what the builder/user wants the PC toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If the user of the PC is a hardcore gamer and he/she wants the games to play on high or ultra graphics settings without looking glitchy, or lagging out, then, the graphics card, RAM, and CPU are goi ng to be the main focus of spending. Although if the user is just a casual gamer who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care about the look of the games he/she plays, and just really wants a computer for everyday browsing then the bare essentials are all that is needed. For, a hardcore build the base budget is in the range of twelve hundred to fifteen hundred dollars. The budget for a casual gaming PC is four hundred to six hundred dollars. One big rule when deciding a budget, NEVER try to save money on the power supply. The power supply is the heart of the PC, it gives the computer life. Without the power supply the other components would not be anything but metal and plastic. The first portion of the computer build for either casual or hardcore, is the CPU. There are two major companies to pick from, Intel and AMD.The only difference in the two is the compatibility with certain motherboards. Whichever is picked, Intel or AMD, will help narrow the decisions on the motherboard, which will in turn h elp figure out the RAM needed. After the decision has been made of one company or the other, the next step is to pick which CPU from either company is the right one for the builder. Intel has the newShow MoreRelatedVideo Games And Its Impact On The Gaming Industry916 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthat a gaming computer instead of a gaming console is the practical alternative. I persuade gamers to stop pouring their money into these gaming consoles, instead purchase or build a gaming computer. I will discuss how a gaming computer is a better purchase than a gaming console because of improved graphics, financial gain, upgrade compatibility, versatile controller options, game selections, learning opportunities, and alternative capabilities. You may be thinking, IÃ¢â¬â¢m not interesting gaming or ItÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreComputer Research Paper1437 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHow to Build A Gaming Computer Computers have changed over the years. This includes speed, video quality and effectiveness. Computers have been made in different styles using different software and components. Building a gaming computers will allow the user to pick and choose what components are wanted when building. Building a gaming computer can be successfully achieved by carefully following outlined steps and safety precautions. In order to correctly build a gaming computer the followingRead MoreEssay On How To Build A Computer1465 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMy research question is Ã¢â¬ËHow can I build a mid-tower gaming computer for less than a thousand dollars?Ã¢â¬â¢ I choose this question because I love computers and tinkering around with them. There are always plenty of options in the tech stores for normal budget desktops and laptops. Gaming computers however do not have such a large selection and the prices are an eye widener. My specific use for the research project computer build is to be very capable at playing games and doing everything else at lessRead MoreVideo Games Have Been Around Since The 1950 S1390 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesVideo games have been around since the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. The first computer game was called Chess and there was no Ã¢â¬Å"videoÃ¢â¬ to be displayed. The program was not even powerful enough to play the full game. The first computer game to use video was called XOX, or Noughts and Crosses, a form of digital tic-tac-toe. Since then, video games have rapidly grown in popularity and improved the play style and graphics. Some graphics in video games that are currently being released look realistic and the gameplayRead MoreBuilding A Computer Essay1036 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmoney by building your own computer rather than buying it from a retail store. Today you will be learning how to build your own pc step by step. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot of steps when it comes to building a computer. From getting the case of the computer to all the hardware. First of all you will need to know what kind of computer you will be wanting to build for example, if you want to build a home office for word processing, you will have much different requirements than if you were to be building a high-endRead MorePc Essay1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Do you want all the power in your hands? Then you need a high-end gaming computer. With a high-end gaming pc you can do anything you want. Most people who think building a pc is extremely expensive. But i will showcase the process and the journey in which I have gone web searching and book turning to find all of my information. The reason I selecting build a pc was because I wanted to learn more about it and fully understand it. I somewhat knew of the subject but wanted to get my desired outcomeRead MoreGaming: How Gaming Has Evolved Over Time. The Evolution1284 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGaming: How Gaming Has Evolved Over Time The evolution of the gaming world continues to strive for further evolvement by expanding the way games are experienced. From the beginning with the start of a game that just depicted a story in words, to changing the way games can be controlled by gamers, we see them evolve even in story concepts. Games provide more choices of action in the ever-growing number of games and game consoles. Starting from no graphics at all and progressing to 3D and reachingRead MoreComponents Of Building A Gaming Pc1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescomponents involved in building a gaming PC. I believe this is a great topic for me as my intended professional goal is to become a video game developer. Where would a professional game developer, like myself, be without a proper gaming PC. Plus, I thought this would be a great opportunity for me to share my passion. I have owned many gaming consoles, PCÃ¢â¬â¢s, and MacÃ¢â¬â¢s over the years. If you are a true gamer, you will already know which platform is the best for you. Gaming consoles like the PS4Read MoreBellagio Controls Essay719 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesoperations; - Constant observation and supervision of the gaming area; - Observation and recording of gaming and other areas by closed-circuit television; - Timely analysis of deviations from expected performance; - Constant computer monitoring of slot machines. These controls help to ensure that cash operations are going well. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses were also subject to various other federal, state, and local laws and regulations in addition to gaming regulations. These laws and regulations included,Read MoreThe Effects Of Video Games On Physical Health1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesca/video-games/concerns-about-video-games Cost of gaming Video games are a fun hobby, but no one ever said it was an inexpensive one. For example a brand new console such as the PS4 or an Xbox One will cost you around Ã £300-400 standalone with absolutely no games. Factoring in the price of games this will usually cost about Ã £40-50 easily for new releases. And if that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough PC gamers have an even harder time when it comes to building their machine as a moderate gaming rig will cost the average user around
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Many colonists held a stronger loyalty to their American Colonies than to England by the eve of the Revolution. The battles and trials that they endured gave them an identity and a unity, they had survived through many hardships and any group that does that had some sort of bond. The unique combining of cultures, geography, and the many political ordeals that American colonists had endured provided them with a sense of identity and unity. There was a combining of culture in America that was unique and this mixing that occurred throughout the colonies made it so that the majority could not identify, fully, with the term Englishmen but identifiedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This description of a melting pot is now heard frequently in America to describe its citizens. The cultural assimilation that occurred in the colonies of the New World gave the people a great sense of identity and the unity as all being Americans. Geography was a large part of the disloyalty and disconnection that the colonists felt toward England before the Revolution. England was an entire ocean away, and a government that holds power from thousands of miles away can not be the most effective or efficient. This might have best been said in The Famous Mather Byles: The noted Boston Tory Preacher which is better, to be ruled by a tyrant three thousand miles away, or three thousand tyrants one mile away. The simple fact that England was on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, not a journey that was made easily, made it clear to colonists that they could not reach their potential with a government that could not attend to them quickly and accurately. That is when they took it upon themselves in developing an identity as a separate country that had to be governed by a leader that was at least on the same continent. As Edmund Burke stated in his NotesShow MoreRelatedMath Essay843 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGeneral Information on the D BQ The required DBQ differs from the standard essays in its emphasis on your ability to analyze and synthesize historical data and assess verbal, quantitative, or pictorial materials as historical evidence. Like the standard essays, however, the DBQ is judged on its thesis and argument. Although confined to no single format, the documents are unlikely to be the familiar classics (such as the Emancipation Proclamation or the Declaration of Independence), but theirRead MoreEssay on Development of the American Identity Between 1750 and 1776919 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesKeum Yong (Andrew) Lee DBQ Ã¢â¬â Score 8/9 (95) In what ways and to what extent did the Ã¢â¬Å"American identityÃ¢â¬ develop between 1750 and 1776? Though the American colonists had not achieved a true, uniform sense of identity or unity by 1776, on the eve of Revolution, the progress towards unity and the inchoate idea of an Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬ between 1750 and 1776 is inevitable in both existence and significance. Previous to the French and Indian War, America as a whole had been, more or less, loyal mercantile-basedRead MoreApush Dbqs Essay2248 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages2011 DBQ: (Form A) 1. Analyze the international and domestic challenges the United States faced between 1968 and 1974, and evaluate how President Richard NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s administration responded to them. (Form B) 1. Explain the ways that participation in political campaigns and elections in the United States changed between 1815 and 1840, and analyze forces and events that led to these changes. 2010 DBQ: (Form A) 1. In what ways did ideas and values held by Puritans influence the politicalRead MoreAp Euro Dutch Republic Dbq1220 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDutch Republic DBQ In the 17th century, the Dutch Republic experienced a Golden Age and was able to maintain security, unity, and prosperity in its society and economy. The nation was considered a leading power, especially in trade and ideas, within Europe. However, it was not long before circumstances changed and the state face many problems establishing peace and agreement. By the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th centuries, there had been a significant change in the Dutch RepublicÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreDbq Colonial New England and Chesapeake Regions891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDBQ: Colonial New England and Chesapeake Regions The Chesapeake and New England regions were settled by people of English descent, but by 1700, they had become two distinctly different societies. They had evolved so differently, mainly because of the way that the settlers followed their religion, their way of conducting politics and demographics in the colonies. Even though the settlers came from the same homeland: England, each group had its own reasons for coming to the New World and differentRead MoreBoyer Dbq Teacher Guide10764 Words Ã |Ã 44 PagesUsing the DBQ Practice Questions from The Enduring Vision, Sixth Edition A TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ Guide Ray Soderholm Minnetonka High School Minnetonka, Minnesota Using the DBQ Practice Questions from The Enduring Vision, 6th Edition A TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ Guide This guide is intended to suggest some possible ways that students may organize essays related to the document-based questions in the Advanced Placement version of The Enduring Vision, 6th Edition, and to provide teachers with some information on each includedRead MoreDbq Essay Impacts Of New Imperialism3241 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesAP World History DBQ Essay Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-8. (The documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the lined pages provided. This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that: Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents. Uses all of the documents. Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate
Saturday, December 14, 2019
TycoÃ¢â¬â¢s job was a consequence of top executives and members of the board non supervising what was legal and what wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t within their company. CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s Kozlowski and CFO Swartz failed to unwrap 1000000s of dollars of low involvement and involvement free loans they received from Tyco. The executives unethical behaviour resulted in stockholders benefits being written off which ended the company traveling into a monolithic debt. We will write a custom essay sample on TycoÃ¢â¬â¢s problem Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now The top executives displayed greed for money. 1. What do you believe Kozlowski motive for seeking to avoid gross revenues revenue enhancements on his art purchases was? Kozlowski motive was power and greed for money. Kozlowski knew that he was in a top place of authorization. and most likely believed that no 1 was traveling to oppugn his place or the incorrect things that he was going involved in. There was besides no existent answerability nowadays or trueness to Tyco. Kozlowski realized that if he purchased the graphics with Tyco financess and so falsified the records. so he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to pay the revenue enhancements out of his ain pocket and took a great hazard that no 1 would happen out. He abused TycoÃ¢â¬â¢s assets for his ain pecuniary addition. 2. Explain the construct of commingling assets with regard to the Tyco instance Commingling assets is and is the act of blending the financess belonging to one party with those of another party. particularly when one party has duty to maintain the financess separate for the other party. Tyco used this as a manner to travel around the system for its on personal additions. concealing the true purposes of its executives. Commingling personal with concern assets is overall a hapless concern determination. The executives treated the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s money as if it were your ain. Besides. the executives used TycoÃ¢â¬â¢s concern assets for their ain personal addition by buying graphics. multiple existent estate belongingss. jewellery. and other dearly-won points for personal usage. By commingling assets. the executives caused attending from revenue enhancement governments and SEC and other condemnable probes due to their delusory behaviours. 3. Would it hold been possible for the board of managers to see the accommodations taking topographic point in the different plans at Tyco? The board members could hold found the unlawful accommodations taking topographic point. but non really likely in this instance. In a sense. the board of managers is every bit much at mistake as the piquing executives because if they played a more proactive function in the concern operations. so the executives may non hold gotten away with every bit much as they did for the long period of clip. If they had taken a more active function. they would hold found deceptive paperss and fraud strategies that were go oning manner Oklahoman than when they were finally discovered. As a consequence of the board non taking an active function. the executiveÃ¢â¬â¢s actions went on for some clip without any notice. The executives knew what they were making was incorrect and illegal. being involved in revenue enhancement equivocation. hyperbolic net incomes and commingling assets. The executives were besides passing out illegal unauthorised fillips. They besides become involved in paying off functionary to be quiet on the affair. Overall. the incorrect actors of the company knew that their actions were illegal. unethical. and dearly-won to Tyco. but they risked all of these things for their ain personal addition. They believed that no 1 would catch on to their actions. but like all offenses that condemnable commit. it finally catches up with them. How to cite TycoÃ¢â¬â¢s problem Essay, Essay examples
Friday, December 6, 2019
Question: Identify a Current or recent Health Policy issue facing an Australian Government, or a particular level of Australian Government, in a Country of your choice. Answer: Introduction: The health system in Australia is publicly funded and is universally accessed by all the peoples of Australia without any discrimination. The government of Australia entitles its citizens with subsidized health treatment. The Australian citizens are provided free treatment in the health care centers and hospitals, which are generally public funded. The insurance companies also help in the treatment by providing coverage for the treatment in private hospitals, which are very costly, and cover certain disease and critical illness. The cost of the treatment is borne by the insurance company on behalf of the patients (Mossialos et al., 2015). The health system in Australia is very complex as federal, state and the territorial government shares the structure of funding the health system in the country. The division of the funding system and the communicational problem between the patients and the health service providers is breaking the cooperation and integration in providing health care service very difficult. Australia is in a good position among all other countries of the world with respect to life expectancy and infant mortality rates. However, Australia is facing and will face serious issues and challenges in maintaining and providing high quality health care system. The other half of the project will discuss regarding the issues and the challenges faced by the Australian Government (Baum et al., 2016). Health Workforce a Health Policy Issue in Australia: Health workforce has become a significant issue all over the world. This has also affected Australian Health Workforce by a large amount. With the involvement of international and national agencies new models are being developed and implemented in Australia. The government of Australia should decide to develop better trained and educated public health workforce for the future. Health workforce has turned into a noteworthy concern and a wellbeing approach issue the world over as of late and it was the concentration for the World Health Report in 2006. All around, expanded worries about the 'mind empty' of wellbeing experts out of creating nations to more created nations prompted the draft WHO code of training about HR for wellbeing. Inside Australia, the arrival of the Productivity Commission Report in 2005 concentrated national consideration on the hugeness and significance of the present and future health workforce in this nation. This finished in the marking of a between legislative consent to move to a national enlistment framework in Australia for some of the wellbeing callings in March 2008. This was trailed by a later arrangement of an administration board of trustees for the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency which will be built up. Other essential and related issues being advanced broadly incorporate the improvement of abilities for v arious wellbeing callings and the steering of new workforce models (Briggs et al., 2014). Nonetheless, these activities have been noiseless on issues to do with what sort of workforce is required to enhance Australia's general health workforce and in this manner, address future general medical problems and difficulties, including those difficulties that are not presently known. With the coming of another Labor government in late 2007, which has seen the foundation of various new commissions, boards of trustees and other working gatherings including the National Health and Hospital Reform Commission, Preventative Health Taskforce, Primary Health Care Strategy, National Indigenous Health Equity Council, there has been extensive dialog in regards to an expanded accentuation on illness counteractive action and wellbeing advancement. In any case, for such approach aim to be made an interpretation of effectively into training, this will depend on having a workforce that has pertinent and specific learning and aptitudes identified with the field of anticipation and general heal th practice all the more for the most part. In this way, it is convenient to analyze what sort of workforce will be required and to consider the related strategy plans that require consideration. Policies for the Public Health Workforce in Australia: The development of general health training in Australia has been a result of intentional government speculation and in addition the consequence of more extensive strategies in the wellbeing and instruction areas. In any case, there are no as of now planned endeavors in progress to address these issues for the future. The expansion of general health training in Australia has been a moderately late wonder, following quite a while of institutional steadiness. The first School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine was built up by the Commonwealth Institute of Health at the University of Sydney in 1927. For a significant part of the twentieth century, Australians looking for a MPH capability needed to migrate to Sydney for a long time to embrace this postgraduate preparing. The 1988 Kerr White Report (the Bicentennial Review of Public Health Education and Research) prompted the foundation of Public Health Education and Research Program (PHERP) and the MPH wound up plainly accessible in many resources of medication around Australia by the mid 1990s. The consequent Dawkins changes in advanced education additionally prompted the prospering of general wellbeing training in numerous new resources of wellbeing sciences in colleges that did not have medicinal schools. Before the finish of the twentieth cent ury and without precedent for Australia, MPH and other undergrad and postgraduate projects in general wellbeing and related fields, for example, wellbeing advancement, were set up and assembled a personality very separate from the field of medication. In late 1993, the Commonwealth practiced its arrangement buying influence by stipulating that PHERP subsidizing would be accessible to consortia of colleges in each state, so understudies could get to the full scope of general wellbeing disciplines. Additionally changes in advanced education, alongside the improvement of the National Competition Policy, in any case, kept on reshaping the scene for colleges. In the decade since the late 1990s, colleges started to abbreviate the length of MPH programs, offer more particular postgraduate capabilities, present undergrad capabilities in general health, and in addition proficient doctorates in general health. Worldwide understudies developed in numbers for the MPH as colleges effectively enrolled for full-expense paying understudies. These patterns were strengthened, if not exacerbated, by the Commonwealth endeavoring to buy new "items" (i.e. alleged "PHERP Innovations") through "best cutting" of existing dollars for new undertakings while the subsidizing base was bolted into authentic examples. Simultaneously, the conditions of NSW and Victoria started to offer propelled professional preparing programs in general health for the individuals who had finished MPHs. These arrangement based plans created a gathering of all around prepared general wellbeing experts who have to a great extent optimized into administration and influential positions. At the flip side of the workforce range, with the development of group based health administrations, popular health capabilities were produced for the professional instruction and preparing (VET) segment too. These preparation programs ended up noticeably accessible for such workforce classifications as medication and liquor laborers, Aboriginal wellbeing specialists, and home care orderlies. At last, as a result of the PHERP Review in 2005, which set the issue of the nature of MPH instruction on the arrangement motivation, draft rehearse based skills are at present being finished as a major aspect of the proposed amendment for MPH prog rams. By 2008, there were no less than 21 advanced education foundations in Australia which were putting forth undergrad or potentially postgraduate capabilities in general health, with 17 establishments getting at any rate some financing through the Commonwealth PHERP conspire. Roles of Stake Holders in health Policy Issue: Stakeholders in the health industry play a major role in making and framing policies for better health standard in the country. To make better-planned and clear policy regarding health policy issues and services engagement of effective stakeholder is very essential. Engagement of the stakeholders in resolving the policy issues is very essential and will be beneficial for both the department and the stakeholders. The benefits that the engagement of stakeholders can bring include contributing to enhance the health services standard by contributing as experts to the development of policy and program (Achtermann et al., 2014). The department will be benefited by the engagement of stakeholders through improved information flows as they have local knowledge about the issues. Engagement of stakeholders will benefit the department of health in Australia as well as the stakeholders themselves by high quality of decision-making, increased efficiency in delivery of service improvement in risk m anagement services, policy and program development processes are channeled. The greater the engagement of stakeholders the better will be the services provided in collaboration with the stakeholders and will provide such outcome, which will be beneficial to the community as a whole. Stakeholders can enhance the community confidence and will enhance the quality of projects. The engagement of the stakeholders may enhance the capacity to innovate (Whiteford, 2015). The health industry includes various and many stakeholders who support the health system and the working of the health institutes properly and smoothly. The Stakeholders who cooperate with the government and the health institute enhance the quality and standard of health system in the country. The stakeholders and their roles can be classified as follows: International Organizations: International organizations like WHO, ILO, World Bank and organization with similar objective are the major stakeholders in the health regime of the world and provides helps to the nations to enhance the quality and standard of health in every country (Jolley et al., 2014). The engagement of this type of stakeholders create sustainable and productive employment of resources, which leads to improvement of health, development of healthy communities and the citizens and population of the country get equitable treatment and provide an healthy environment for the population of the country. The potential role of the international organization acting as the stakeholder is to promote the development and improvement in the health standard and enable that the developments are made at the country level through the modes of advocacy, research, better infrastructure, and investment in plot programs of the country. Poor health is a symbol of inequality of status and fa cilities that the country provides to its people or citizen (Bryceson, Fitzgerald Annison, 2016). The international organizations are the best-suited stakeholder in the health regime as it can help the country by providing advance technological knowhow in the field of health treatment. The international organizations have a record of well-known policy makers who can help in the development policy in the health regime, which will help the government to run the health system without any difficulty. The population of the country will be benefited from the information available from the international organization about their health and can access resources for the betterment of their health standard. National and local government: The economy and the community will move ahead if the population of the country has good health. Increase in the employment opportunities and investment in the countrys economy helps to facilitate the labor market and helps to enhance the level of fitness and health. The government plays a vital role in the development of health related policy and services and promote the workplace as a setting for health. Government at all levels has the responsibility for the prevention of diseases and protection of health of the citizen of the country. Employers are accountable to the government to take steps and provide securities for their health and safety of its employees. Government has a potential role to play in the improvement in the health standard of the country. The government should improve the workplace environment and health standard, which will enhance the quality of work in the industry and as a result will enhance the quality of health standard of the overall community. The government has the responsibility to create an environment and promote health and wellbeing of the community. The government should create employment opportunities to enhance the standard of living of the people, which will result in automatic growth in the healthy environment and health standard of the population of the country. The government should encourage the employers to promote health through national and local health campaigns, schemes, and capacity. To improve and develop the health system in the country the government can act as a developer of health related public policy. The government must also make changes to some agricultural and food policies so that the population gets a higher quality of food products and gain their health standard (Cullerton et al., 2016). Non-Governmental Organization: Many organizations within the country are involved in the maintenance and aware the population about the possible health issues. The NGOs provide advocacy and promote awareness among the population of the country regarding the specific cause and increases knowledge through work and events. NGOs promote good practice in improving the health of the population, public health, and economic development. The NGO is using different techniques, method and platform promote and aware the population of the community and support the development of the health system and regime in the country. The NGOs provide awareness in disease prevention and health promotion through various roles. NGOs are generally run by the youth population of the country and are advanced in the use of technology. NGOs consist of persons from various fields, which help them to conduct research in various aspects and issues faced by the society, community and the country as a whole. As the NGO' s are run by the youth, they have more ability and power to bring the resources into the process of development (Whitty Littlejohns, 2015). Employers: Employers are the person who has the responsibility to provide its employees with safe and healthy environment so that the production capacity of the unit enhances which will result in the economic growth of the country. The more the economic growth of the country the more the country will be able to invest in the health and security of the population of the country. The employers have an important role in the up gradation of the health system by involving themselves in national and local programs and promote the health of the employee. The employer shall aware and promote the benefits of good diet and nutritional level among the employees. The employees should be aware about the benefits of safe food preparation and storage through coordination and integration between the employer and the employees (Boxall Gillespie, 2013). Health Insurance Companies: The health insurance companies play a vital role in the improvement of health standard of the people of the country by providing fund and indemnifying them from the possible health risks. The insurance company has technical expertise and share expertise about the possible health issues (Akompab et al., 2013). Conclusion: Therefore it is concluded that a number of reform options have been discussed in the project. The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission have recommended various reforms in the policies in the department of health. The government has introduced many reforms in the health care system in the country but many of its schemes have failed considerably. The governments Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and Medicare faced considerable opposition when they were introduced as a government scheme. The government is willing to take developing approaches in the field of health care but the government is facing several obstacles in implementation of those schemes and policies. The government has also recognized certain measures and remedies to overcome those obstacles. Due to lack of clarity between the levels of the government over the departmental responsibilities hampers the development of the health system in the country. In many states of Australia, there is a dispute with proper and ap propriate funding of the hospital and health care units between the governments. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should engage all the recognized stakeholders in the health regime to make and frame policies to overcome the present and future possible obstacles that the government of Australia is facing or is going to face. The stakeholders who can bring development in the health sector of the country should take the initiatives References: Achtermann, W., Braun, D., Hering, D., Trein, P., Uhlmann, B. (2014). Multilevel governance in health policy: Comparing Australia, Germany, and Switzerland.Research Project funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Ref: 26041044). Achtermann, W., Braun, D., Hering, D., Trein, P., Uhlmann, B. (2014). Multilevel governance in health policy: Comparing Australia, Germany and Switzerland.Research Project funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Ref: 26041044). Akompab, D. A., Bi, P., Williams, S., Saniotis, A., Walker, I. A., Augoustinos, M. (2013). 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(2013).Improving patient care: the implementation of change in health care. John Wiley Sons. Hajizadeh, M., Connelly, L. B., Butler, J. R. G. (2014). Health policy and equity of health care financing in Australia: 19732010.Review of Income and Wealth,60(2), 298-322. Jolley, G., Freeman, T., Baum, F., Hurley, C., Lawless, A., Bentley, M., ... Sanders, D. (2014). Health policy in South Australia 200310: primary health care workforce perceptions of the impact of policy change on health promotion.Health Promotion Journal of Australia,25(2), 116-124. Mossialos, E., Wenzl, M., Osborn, R., Anderson, C. (2015). International profiles of health care systems.The Commonwealth Fund,2016. Murphy, M., Badland, H., Koohsari, M. J., Astell-Burt, T., Trapp, G., Villanueva, K., ... Giles-Corti, B. (2017). Indicators of a health-promoting local food environment: a conceptual framework to inform urban planning policy and practice.Health promotion journal of Australia: official journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals,28(1), 82. Pinto, D., Martin, D., Chenhall, R. (2016). The involvement of patient organisations in rare disease research: a mixed methods study in Australia.Orphanet journal of rare diseases,11(1), 2. Robertson-Preidler, J., Anstey, M., Biller-Andorno, N., Norrish, A. (2017). Approaches to appropriate care delivery from a policy perspective: A case study of Australia, England and Switzerland.Health Policy. Walters, L. K., McGrail, M. R., Carson, D. B., O'Sullivan, B. G., Russell, D. J., Strasser, R. P., ... Kamien, M. (2017). Where to next for rural general practice policy and research in Australia?.The Medical Journal of Australia,207(2), 56-58. Wells, L., Root, J. (2015). Strengthening Medicare to Improve Health Outcomes.Australian Economic Review,48(3), 298-304. Whiteford, H. (2015). Shaping mental health policy in Australia, 1988-2008. Whitty, J. A., Littlejohns, P. (2015). Social values and health priority setting in Australia: an analysis applied to the context of health technology assessment.Health Policy,119(2), 127-136.
Friday, November 29, 2019
The concept of holism Paper In this essay I intend to look at the concept of holism, why it is important, how it is supported in legislation and codes of practice and the possible benefits to the nurse patient relationship. Due to the word limit the focus is going to be centred around the positive aspects of the approach as apposed to negative critique. In order to explore the importance of considering the patient holistically, it is imperative that we understand what the word/concept holistic means. Weller (2004, p44) describes holism as a comprehensive approach to health care that encompasses and considers the body, mind and spirit considering all actions and interventions for the patient, while recognising the concept of uniqueness, individualism and the influence of internal and external environmental factors on health. This can be condensed to suggesting that we should consider the person as a whole in relation to their individual needs. Dryden (1995, p. 77) cites that Fitz Perls (1951), based his gestalt approach to psychotherapy on premise that we should take an holistic view in relating to a person in order to help a person grow and ascertain a sense of wholeness. Stevenson, Grieves Stein-Parbom (2004, p16) suggests that holism is knowing more about a person rather than deciding on a clinical pathway. It could be argued that the holistic approach is a humanistic approach focussing on growth and individualism/wholeness. We will write a custom essay sample on The concept of holism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The concept of holism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The concept of holism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The NMC recognises the importance of wholeness and holistic care by specifying in the 2008 code of conduct that we should treat people as individuals and respect their dignity. From this statement alone it is possible to see that holistic care requires a positive regard and requires all practitioners to consider all dimensions of a person. Brown and Libberton (2007, p. 99) suggests that an whole person comprises of three dimensions; including physical spiritual and social. We know that these theories and concepts are important as we have seen the merge of the bio-medial, reductionist, model with the psychosocial model to provide a more comprehensive approach to health care and addressing health needs. The holistic approach can support a nurse to provide better care for a patient by understanding a patients, lifestyle, background, social class, culture, religious/spiritual values and social support and use this information to support recovery and sustained health. This level of engagement will allow the nurse to develop a trust relationship with the patient, allowing a therapeutic relationship to take place. Sherwood (1997, p. 40) suggests that therapeutic relationships have an impact on healing patterns that make patients feel better. Sussex and Scourfield (2004, p. 306) suggests that not only to people have needs they have ideas about their needs and these cover many areas of their lives. Therefore the therapeutic relationship will encourage the patient to be involved with their own care, recovery and can empower them to self advocate with involvement. The white paper, valuing people 2001 suggests that as health care providers we should promote choice, independence, rights and inclusion for people with learning disabilities and the underpinning ethos is person centred and holistic care. In 1998 the Department of Health introduced the standard two: person centred care guidance directing the NHS and social care services treat older people as individuals and enable them to make choices about their own care. This would include takings into consideration the individual needs of a person and not just comparative needs or needs relating to illness. The importance of holism is being incorporated in to many care based initiatives to create a more patient focused service. valuingpeople. gov. uk/dynamic/valuingpeople4. jsp When all the perspectives on holistic care are collated, it is possible to see that treating a patient holistically is not only important, but it is paramount from the period of admission, during assessment, care planning and discharge. It should be incorporated in all levels of nursing intervention as it is considered a macro approach by looking at the bigger picture as apposed to the micro problem or health problem. Pearson Vaughan (1994, p. 97) supports the view that holistic care treats the whole person and promoting holistic care as assessment and care planning which occur as an integral part of the relationship can be tailored to individual need. The need for a holistic approach is also reflected in legislations and regulations and these statues require compliance. For example the Human Rights 1998 states that people have the right not to be discriminated against, right to respect for private and family life, freedom of thought, conscience and religion. By considering these rights it could be argued that we would be taking a holistic approach rather than treating patients as a condition; as apposed to an individual. In 2007 and the Mental Health Act was amended to remedy human right incompatibilities and the code practice changed to include recognition for diversity and sets a more holistic approach to patients care. Therefore importance of treating people holistically applies to all patients including marginalised groups. www. opsi. gov. uk/acts/acts1998/ukpga The holistic approach embraces equality diversity and rights avoiding litigation and oppressive care practice. By looking at the person as an individual and engaging with the person we are working ethically, within legal frame works and codes of practice. We are putting the patient at the centre of all decisions made and supporting inclusion and involvement. In conclusion there are many aspects of patient care and the holistic approach is about taking a more rounded view of a person their life and their lifestyle. It is more ethical is more likely to maintain or encourage a positive self concept/image or a balanced equilibrium. We have established that there are many elements and factors make up a persons identity and we should consider these factors to ensure a patient maintains a sense of self and does not become diminished as a result of treatment or care provided. We need to comply with law and codes of practice to ensure that we keep patients and our selves safe. The holistic approach is one that should start at the point of contact to discharge. It is important when identifying need within multi agency working frame works and planning patient care. It helps to maintain independence and can in some cases have an impact on recovery. The holistic approach requires nurses to be more diverse, innovate and analytical, demanding a host of new skills that are required to undertake the role. Many nurses have evolved from working with medical facts and processes to working outside the box and co-coordinating care for individuals with complex needs. The holistic approach underpins how we practice and treat our patients.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Physician-assisted suicide presents one of the greatest dilemmas tothe medical profession. Should someone who is mentally competent, but deemed terminally ill, be allowed to engagein physician-assisted suicide? According to the First Amendment of The Constitution of The United States, Ã¢â¬Å"one hasthe freedom to petition the government for a redress of grievances.Ã¢â¬Å" The Fourteenth Amendment states, Ã¢â¬Å"The Statecannot deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor deny any person within itsjurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.Ã¢â¬Å" The group believes that a terminally ill patient has the Constitutionalright to decide whether or not to end his or her life with the help of a licensed medical doctor. There have been many cases overthe years where a terminally ill patient who is mentally competent has made the choice to either partake in physician-assistedsuicide or euthanasia. Ã¢â¬Å"Physician-assisted suicide occurs when the physician provides thepatient with the means and/or knowledge to commit suicideÃ¢â¬ (Death and Dying,91). Ã¢â¬Å"Euthanasia is when the physicianadministers the death causing drug or agentÃ¢â¬ (Death and Dying,92). The most recent case is that of The Stateof Florida v. Charles Hall. Ã¢â¬Å"Charles Hall is dying of AIDS and challenged the State of Florida to let him die bya self-administered lethal injection without fear of prosecutionÃ¢â¬ (rights.org/ deathnet/open.html). On January31, 1997, a Judge ruled that Charles Hall could take his own life with the aid of a doctor. Senior Judge S. JosephDavis, brought in from Seminole County, Ã¢â¬Å"found that FloridaÃ¢â¬â¢s strict privacy law and the equal protection clause in theU.S. Constitution entitled Hall, 35, and Dr. McIver to carry out an assisted death without fear of prosecutionÃ¢â¬ (Sun-Sentinel,1A). On February 11, 1997, Charles HallÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling was overturned by the Florida Supreme Court: he no longer hasthe right to end his o... Free Essays on Physician-Assisted Suicide Free Essays on Physician-Assisted Suicide Physician-assisted suicide presents one of the greatest dilemmas tothe medical profession. Should someone who is mentally competent, but deemed terminally ill, be allowed to engagein physician-assisted suicide? According to the First Amendment of The Constitution of The United States, Ã¢â¬Å"one hasthe freedom to petition the government for a redress of grievances.Ã¢â¬Å" The Fourteenth Amendment states, Ã¢â¬Å"The Statecannot deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor deny any person within itsjurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.Ã¢â¬Å" The group believes that a terminally ill patient has the Constitutionalright to decide whether or not to end his or her life with the help of a licensed medical doctor. There have been many cases overthe years where a terminally ill patient who is mentally competent has made the choice to either partake in physician-assistedsuicide or euthanasia. Ã¢â¬Å"Physician-assisted suicide occurs when the physician provides thepatient with the means and/or knowledge to commit suicideÃ¢â¬ (Death and Dying,91). Ã¢â¬Å"Euthanasia is when the physicianadministers the death causing drug or agentÃ¢â¬ (Death and Dying,92). The most recent case is that of The Stateof Florida v. Charles Hall. Ã¢â¬Å"Charles Hall is dying of AIDS and challenged the State of Florida to let him die bya self-administered lethal injection without fear of prosecutionÃ¢â¬ (rights.org/ deathnet/open.html). On January31, 1997, a Judge ruled that Charles Hall could take his own life with the aid of a doctor. Senior Judge S. JosephDavis, brought in from Seminole County, Ã¢â¬Å"found that FloridaÃ¢â¬â¢s strict privacy law and the equal protection clause in theU.S. Constitution entitled Hall, 35, and Dr. McIver to carry out an assisted death without fear of prosecutionÃ¢â¬ (Sun-Sentinel,1A). On February 11, 1997, Charles HallÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling was overturned by the Florida Supreme Court: he no longer hasthe right to end his o...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
You choose topic - Research Paper Example reportedly practiced from the western stretch of Africa into the central, eastern and north eastern Africa excluding the Northern Arabic and South African countries. It has been conducted by selective ethnicities, tribes and clans and often associated with Islamic religion, majorly on the grounds of upholding traditions and cultures, for chastity, purification and as a religious obligation. These justifications are based on beliefs and myths of the traditions and religion. Depending on the interventions taken in country levels to fight FGM some have facilitated the decline of the prevalence rate, while others remain dormant or ineffective. To curb the problem, safe shelters for FGM escapees have been established and even funded, while anti-FGM laws and campaigns are broadly in place as government strive to enforce the regulations. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a global problem affecting a minority of the female gender and associated with serious health illnesses. Women and young girls (minor) have fallen victims of the prevalent FGM, often embraced in the settings and societies they are brought up. It is a procedure that has seen millions of women suffer, ashamed and even afraid to speak about it. While male circumcision is acceptable and dominant across the continents, female circumcision has in the past attracted divided attention from its supporters and opponents. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a widespread problem in Africa and Middle East compared to the western world. However, due to the immigration policies adopted by different industrialized nations, the FGM culture did gradually enter into the western countries, especially since the first black movement from the south into the north. According to WHO, female circumcision is an operation Ã¢â¬Å"involving removal of total or partial external female genitalia or othe r injuries to the female genital organs for non medical reasonsÃ¢â¬ (2008, p.2). The research paper expounds on the study of FGM in Africa With regard to the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Sales and Marketing - Term Paper Example As the paper discusses sales professionals are very ambitious individuals and with this regard, they strive to pursue all their opportunities in line with their sales objectives for them to maximize their sales revenues. Other expectations include; the identification and qualification of probable leads within and without regions in aiding the development of estimates and deals to improve on the sales revenues of the given corporate. They expect to have the capability if demonstrating highly professional and negotiation skills in all the activities that they engage in. this has the impact of enabling the demonstrate the expertise in all the product lines as well as influencing the markets reenergizing the old markets while focusing on newer markets. From this paper it is clear that a sales professional position is a key position in any corporation as sales is the driving force of any form of organization. When the actions by a sales professional are well implemented the sales of the organization are likely are likely to increase by more than targeted margins. Therefore, in order to ensure there is good working environment of doing business and for all businesses to operate freely without having fear of any form of unfairness, ethics is fundamental. Ethics can be attained mainly through regulations and guidelines, which are solely contained in an ethics policy. To ensure that there is ethics in adverts made, the policy defines the advert types in a manner that will define what is acceptable and not. The policy sets out all the available positions that the adverts are placed by ensuring that the top, right and bottom of the content require the advertising space. The policy stipulates clear guidelines through which advertising is done and largely it does not allow for advertising any defined content. The exceptions of the moral code of behavior are defined to encourage the links to in-h ouse sales revenue. The policy gives out a clear peculiarity between what promotions is and how it is done as well as the actions of the company. This ensures that there is no mix-up in all the roles displayed by the organization. The code of conduct is that guides advertising and promotes all the objectives of the company to help the organization in understanding the context in which the organization operates which is well define. The policy ensures that advertisement are far much family friendly and are not offensive that are in line of enabling the understanding of all the roles.Ã
Monday, November 18, 2019
Planning the Project (Topic in Instruction3) - Essay Example The project plan could be used in the process of bidding, submission of proposal or as a request for raising funds. The activities to be undertaken as mentioned in the project plan provide a clear idea of the expectation levels on the deliverables of the project. The primary function of a project plan thus includes co-ordination, planning and communication of the project deliverables. The project plan helps the team members to co-ordinate among themselves on the areas of importance on project deliverables and how the overall plan could be improved for efficient project management (Kerzner 39). The project plan primarily serves as a planning tool that could be modified by the planners to envisage the goals and success of the project. By showcasing a similar project, the plan could serve the primary function of communicating to the team members and the client about the outline of actions to be undertaken in the project and the milestones that could be achieved in the process. Nine (9) categories of information needed in a project master plan The nine categories of information needed in a master project plan are given as follows. The master project plan should include a project guide in the first place that incorporates a checklist for the activities of the project. The project guide would guide the several tasks to be undertaken in the project in a sequential manner. The next information needed in a master project plan is a project definition. The project definition includes an explanation of the objectives of the project, description of the project activities, the cost and risk associated with the project, goals of the project and the timelines for completion of the project. The project definition includes a tentative plan for the completion of the project. The third information incorporated in the project master plan in analysis and evaluation of the project. The analysis of the projects in term of the focus areas of the project and the relative importance of t he focus areas in the project is analyzed. The evaluation of the project in terms of the goals and milestones to be achieved through the project work is described in this information. The requirements of the project work and the system requirements are the next information incorporated in the master plan (Carmichael 57). The system requirements of the project and the requirement of resources for undertaking the project are mentioned in a statement of work and system requirements. The fifth category of information is the information on the process to be undertaken for the project. The selection of vendors, outsourcing of specialized roles approval of several functions of the project are part of this information category. A technical evaluation of the project is the next information that is included in the project master plan. The expectations from the project and the desired results of the project are dependent on the technical expertise in the domain and thus technical evaluation is important for attainment of the desired benchmark results. The sixth information to be incorporated in the master project plan includes is an analysis of the budgeting and financial management of the project work. This information is crucial as the performance of the project work depends on the funding of the project, sources of funds and effective implementation of the funds in the areas planned
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Manufacturing Process of Bricks A brick has been a common construction material used everywhere for more than 6000 years, and has been in various shape, sizes and were made by mixing many different type of materials, each of them having their own advantage and disadvantage; and formed the basic structure and the back bone of many civilisations and was used in a wide range of buildings in centuries from building palaces, housing factories, in tunnels construction, water ways, bridges, making it the oldest manufactured building material. For centuries, the brick making process was done by hand, and involved clay being moulded and then dried in the sun until the industrial revolution when the process turned to mechanization. Today technological and mechanical advancement has helped to have a more complete knowledge of the raw material and its properties, and better control of firing, improvement in the kiln designs, all have contributed to the advancement of brick quality and has made contemporary bricks more efficien t and has improved the overall quality of the products. Today, brick is found in various materials and made in various shapes depending on the use. There are concrete brick, calcium silicate brick, clay brick and Adobe brick. See Appendix 1 This report will be looking at the technology associated with the manufacturing process of automated and traditional soil clay brick, adobe brick plain mud brick which are still use today in certain part of the globe or sometimes and slump brick- and the future of brick. PART ONE MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF AUTOMATED BRICK The first stage in the manufacturing process of the soil clay brick start with the selection of the raw material. RAW MATERIAL The main raw material in brick making is clay and it is one of the most abundant natural mineral materials on the planet. On earth, there is a wide range of clay which varies considerably in physical properties, colour, hardness and mineralogical content; making it difficult to pinpoint particular clay and say this is the best clay for brick making but they do, however, have certain properties in common. PROPERTIES and TYPES OF CLAYS Clay is complex material as individual, and their deposits is unique due to their specific modes of formation and physical characteristics, and are rarely present as pure minerals but rather are mixtures of the different clay types of one group or type normally being dominant. But the Clay entering in brick manufacturing must possess and fulfil some specific properties and characteristic such as the ability to be crushed and mixed with water to form a plastic material which can be moulded into various shapes; shrinkage or swelling percentage on firing, meaning when subject to appropriate temperatures the clay particles must fuse together; the bloating characteristics, meaning the percentage of water absorption; firing colour, meaning the colour of the brick after drying and percentage of fines produced upon crushing and fire strength and these physical properties determine their commercial value. The clays from which burnt bricks are made may be divided into three principal types, all of which have similar chemical compositions but different physical characteristics. They are: 2. A Surface Clays also called Alluvial and Drift Clays Found near the surface of the earth, may be the up thrusts of older deposits or of more recent, sedimentary formation; are readily worked and require little preparation. 2. B Shale clays or rocky clays Shale is sedimentary deposits clays that have been subjected to high pressures until they have hardened almost to the form of slate which are often difficult to work and necessitate the use of heavy machinery to extract but, may be brought into plastic condition by long weathering (i.e. by exposure to rain, frost and sun) or by crushing and grinding in water, and they then resemble ordinary alluvial clays in every respect. 2. C Fire Clays Fire clays are usually mined at deeper levels of the earth than other clays where they form the bed layer under seams of coal and have refractory qualities and a high degree of resistance to heat. MANUFACTURING PROCESS The process of making clay brick is generally uniform, although manufactures tailor their production to fit their particular raw materials. In general, the manufacturing process consists of essentially of six stages: Mining and Gathering raw materials Preparation of raw material (crushing, grinding, screening and mixing the raw materials) Making of the brick or Forming Process (forming, cutting and coating) Drying Curing ( firing and cooling) Packaging and storing Diagram of the industrial manufacturing process of clay bricks MINING and GATHERING RAW MATERIALS The choice of the mining method of clay will depend on the kind of clay, on the depth, thickness, hardness and physical geology of the clay location under the ground. The general method of extracting clay from the quarry is once or twice a year using heavy plant machinery to stock pile large amounts, so to ensure continuous brick production regardless of the weather conditions and because clays are rarely present as pure minerals but rather mixtures of the different clay types; laboratory testing of the clays from different parts of quarry will determine the characteristics of the layers and will be stock in separate different categories which will facilitate the blending of the raw materials. PREPATION OF THE RAW MATERIAL In the manufacturer, the clay rock is crashed and reduced in smaller particles, and then the material produced is screen through an inclined vibrating screening machine to control the particle sizes prior to water being added. During the screening, manufactures adjust and compensate the different variations in chemical composition and physical properties by blending clays from different locations and sources to fit their standard of the end product. Consequently, to fulfil their requirements of perfect clay for bricks making, or for the composition of the raw material to fulfil their standard, the different mixes and proportions of clay and chemical are blended together, prior to add water, as which of them affect the working properties of clays causing them to vary in their behaviour affecting the properties of the final product. At the same time, manufacture has standardized their end product and their manufacturing processes to limit variations in the processing and the inconsistency in end product. For instance, a clay brick that when cure turn white may be developed commercially because, by adding various minerals like oxide of iron will affect the propriety of the brick in such a way that when cure it will produce a red brick if also there is consistency in the manufacturing processes. Example: Clay containing from 5 to 8 % of oxide of iron will, under ordinary conditions of firing, produce a red brick; but if the clay contains 3 to 4% of alkalis, or the brick is fired too hard, the colour will be darker and purple. An excess of Alumina compound tending to make the colour lighter and brighter. FORMING OF THE BRICK The first step in forming process is to produce a homogeneous plastic clay mass work up into proper consistency by adding water to clay in a mixing chamber with one or more revolving shafts with blade extensions. After the kneading, the plastic clay mass is ready for forming. There are three different methods of shaping and forming brick: the stiff-mud process or extrusion process 6. A. The stiff-mud process or extrusion process In the stiff-mud process or extrusion process, the clay is mixed with just enough water to produce clay plastic mass with water in the range of 10 to 15 percent of the clay mass. Next, the clay is extruded through a die, producing a horizontal column of clay which passes by conveyor belt through an automatic wire cutter to create the individual brick. The cutter spaces and die size are precisely calculated to compensate for shrinkage during drying and firing. 6. B. Soft-mud process In the soft-mud process or moulded process, the clay contains too much water to be extruded. The plastic clay mass contain 20 to 30 percent of water per mass is used to produce brick either by hand or machine. In the machine driven soft-mud process, standard brick are produce in mass quantities as the machine replicate the hand-making process much quicker. 6. C. Hand making In the simplest form which is done by hand, the craftsman will produce one brick at the time by stuffing a lump of soft clay in a mould and the excess clay is stuff from the top of the mould and the brick is turned out. The mould is lubricated with either sand or water to prevent the brick from sticking in the mould. 6. D. The dry-press process In this process hydraulic or compressed air rams is used to press clay with very low plasticity, containing no more than ten percent of water by weight, into steel moulds under pressures from 500 to 1500 psi creating a very compact and dense brick. DRYING PROCESS Prior to the brick to be fired in the kiln, after the brick is formed using any of the method describes above, it containing 7 to 30 percent of moisture, depending upon the forming method. This moisture must be removed prior to the brick can be fired in the kiln otherwise, there will be formation of scum and certain mechanical defects from occurring or the brick will explode when the brick is subject to the intense heat of the kiln. This drying process which last about 18 to 40 hours, is normally done by placing the green brick in enclosed dryer which utilize excess heat supplied from the exhaust heat of kiln to maximize thermal efficiency. To ensure good result, devices are installed to measure and control humidity in the drying facilities. A. Firing After the drying, the brick are fired in furnace chamber called kiln for 10 to 40 hours, where there are subject to a temperature of ranging between 100 to 1200 degrees centigrade depending on clay type or material used and the type of finished brick required. During the process, clay particles and impurities will undergo changes as the temperature in the kilns rises. The remaining water in the brick will dry up or evaporate; unlike the metal, clay softens slowly and melts or vitrifies gradually in rising temperature. The clay molecules mass breaks down becomes soft enough to stick together; the mass becomes tight, solid and non absorbent giving the brick it texture and colour. To ensure a good product and avoid the brick to be deformed due to heat also called viscous fusion, kiln is fitted with sensors to control the temperature in the different stage the firing process. 7.A.1. What is a Kiln? In brief, kilns are just containers for heat; fuelled by natural gas, coal, sawdust, and methane gas from landfills or a combination of these fuels. There are many different types of kilns but the most common types are the continuous kilns (tunnel) which are always firing; they never cool and are capable of turning out large quantities of bricks at steady constant rate and the periodic (intermittent) kilns which are fired on an intermittent schedule. http://www.pottery-magic.com/pottery/history/bottle_kiln.htm PACKAGING Following the firing process is the packaging but prior to that the bricks are gradually cool down, for 10 hours for tunnel kiln and form 5 to 24 hours in periodic kiln, as the rate of cooling affect directly the final colour of the bricks. After the brick has cool downs, there are unload from the kiln; sorted, graded, packaged and place in a storage yard or loaded rail cars or truck of delivery. PART TWO MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF ADOBE CLAY BRICK The adobe brick, this type of earthen building materials has been around since the beginning of civilisation and has been the main building material for most of the civilisation. In our day, Adobe are mostly used in hot and dry climates and become the characteristic of the third world. Although this is a very old material, it manufacturing process hasnt change since. As with the soil clay brick the main ingredient which enter in the manufacturing process is clay and the manufacturing process start with the choice of the raw material. SELECTION OF RAW MATERIALS Adobe brick are made from a mixture of mud or clay and small pieces of straw or reeds, and are formed by hand and left in the sun to dry. The secret of make adobe bricks lays on the choice of the type of clay to use as it is made of surface clay soil. Although the bricks are made in rural area where there is no sophisticated laboratory for testing but prior using the clay it has to be tested. The testing of the clay can be done by filling 2/3 of a graded glass jar with the clay you plan to use, and then fill the jar with water and put a lid on. Shake the jar for about two minutes making sure the clay is totally mix up with the water then let the jar and the mix to sit overnight. After about 24 hours, examine the jar and its content; the clay would have broken up into two distinct bands of sand on the bottom and clay on the top. There should not be more clay than sand on the ration of 30 percent clay and 70 percent sand for an ideal adobe brick making clay. EQUIPMENT NEEDED Clay soil Measuring Tape Hammer Hand Saw 24 timbers Nails Shovel Bucket Water Straw PREPARATION OF BRICKS After selecting the clay, an area must be clear prior to start making bricks and a shed to protect the newly made against the rain as it can take a couple of days for them to dry. In the nearby, dig a hole of about 3 to 4 feet long, 2 to 3 feet wide and 2 to 3 feet deep as a mixing pit for the different ingredients. Then fill the hole with water and let it drain out as this will strengthen the wall of the hole for it not to crumble while mixing the clay soil. This will take at least a day to dry out.Ã Make mould of the bricks using timber. The traditional size is 4 by 10 by 14 inches and this is made with 2 by 4 studs nailed into a ladder like shape. MAKING ADOBE BRICKS Once the water in the pit has dry out, fill the pit halfway with the clay soil then add water gradually as mixing with the feet our shovel until the mix is stiff. Straw can be added to reinforce the mix but it is not necessary.Fill the mould using a shovel or hand thenlevel off the excess with the shovel or with a straight edge, makingsure there are no air pockets or gaps.Ã Let the bricks set and then gently remove the mould from them leaving the wet adobe bricks to dry for several days (at least three) before handling. Wash the mould and repeat the process in a different area. DRYING PROCESS Leave the adobe brick where they are while they dry in the sun for several days before turning them on the edge to completely dry out and harden and put under the shed so that the drying time can continue. When the edges turn white, they are ready to be moved, but not used. This process could take at least 3 weeks prior the brick is use. PART THREE THE FUTURE OF CLAY BRICK As the world population is growing especially in developing countries, there is a need of urbanisation to accommodate this populace meaning more bricks are needed to answer to this demand of infrastructure development. With the growing problem of energy price soaring, with the world running out of fossil fuel, with the reduction of deforestation which encourages the expansion of the desert, the clay brick industry is now facing an energy crisis and this crisis is affecting and will affect everyone. In the developed country, it is affecting the price of the accommodation and the house price while in the developing country it is leading to the impoverishment of many. This crisis resound as called for innovation by funding a new way of making new type of clay brick or improving the firing process by a new design of kiln aiming to reduce energy consumption by minimizing the energy required by the process as firing time and temperature in the kiln are the two key factors which contribute in the making of solid brick. In the developed country, electricity and fossil fuel are use as the main fuel source for brick firing as they are abundant. Founding other alternative to these sources of energy could be the way forward. But investing in nuclear power will raise an environmental issue of dealing with the nuclear waste; investing in the renewable energy will be a gamble in the way that, most of this technology are still in embryonic state and will require funding a good spot to install them and a big area to cover to be able to produce enough energy necessary to power this industries such investment will impair on the price of brick. It will mean also to divert energy which will be helpful to thousand household into industry. UNFIRED CLAY BRICK The way forward will be probably in reducing the energy consumption by designing better kiln and improving our knowledge of the minimum energy required by the process as unnecessary prolonged firing time and too high temperature will eventually consume more energy but minimum firing temperature and shortening firing time do not only reduce energy but also increase the productivity. In the developing country, this crisis reverberates as called for innovation, finding an alternative for curing clay brick as they are facing desertification. Curing is done, depending on the area, by fire wood, rice husk and maize cob or residue as main fuel sources for brick firing because they are abundant in developing country. Even though other agricultural waste such as saw dust and oil palm shell are used as substitute for wood, a new design of kiln is necessary to cope with the small size of fuel. If thinking in term of innovation in finding a new way of making clay brick, the new brick should be energy efficient in manufacturing process especial if cure through a kiln. Although the adobe clay brick may seem to be the answer but this brick however is not very strong or durable and tend to crack on drying. But one of the modern additions is to compensate this weakness by mixing soil clay with sand and stabilizing it with 4 to 8 % of cement or gypsum and then compress these materials in a given mould form, which results in strong and durable bricks, which do not crack. This is done with simple and yet innovative manually or engine-operated brick presses made from substantial steel sections with axle steel shaft with a top round shaft is case hardened carbon steel with a lid and with a bottom that moves up and down; the compression given by the machine compact the soil particles together to make dense regular shaped brick, usually 300x300x 130 mm in size and it is useÃ to produce interlocking soil clay bricks without burning. MANUFACTURING UNFIRED CLAY BRICKS This process uses the same type of clay use for the adobe brick. After the soil clay has been selected, it must be properly mix with Portland cement or gypsum then add water to the content so that the final product is a dry mixture containing about 15% water by weight. The dry mixture is poured in the mould of the press machine which is compress by pushing the press lever from one side to the other after closure of the top with a steel lid, with a force of about12 to 14 tons mould pressure. After the compression finish, the brick is eject from the machine and stack in the way to prevent water loss. Water is added daily so that the cement can be hydrated properly. The curing process will take about 28 days.Ã ADVANTAGES This Environmentally-sound building process is practical, inexpensive andÃ environmentallyHYPERLINK http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/environment/soil-brick-making-machines-can-save-the-forests.htmlÃ HYPERLINK http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/environment/soil-brick-making-machines-can-save-the-forests.htmlfriendly, as well as significant in cost savings and on-going green benefits, building with unfired soil clay bricks is one of the solution for the housing crisis because it has a lot of environmental benefits. Figure 2 The environment is protected in several ways: It lessens the ecological impact of building construction, thereby reducing deforestation and the need kiln. There is hence no need to burn the bricks, which makes this process a very low-energy requiring one. It saves money as the brick can be made On-site eliminating transportation, middlemen and breakage cost. On the other hand, unfired clay brick provide a sustainable and healthy alternative as replacement to conventional masonry materials. The structures made with soil bricks are as beautiful and durable as housing made from conventional bricks with the higher acoustical qualities that shut out exterior noise for less stressful living and reduce the need to heat or cool the interior. The soil brick is suitable especially for use in multi storey buildings, due to its durability and robustness. The bricks are already strong enough to be handled for storage when they leave the machine. Brick presses allow countryside people to build independently their own affordable bricks to self-build their houses and not have to rely on salesmen and production in towns, bad roads, transport problems and fluctuating prices. CONCLUSION The lack of fossil fuels the world will face shortly will drive the world in an economical crisis which we havent experience before driving up the price of accommodation. Though the idea of compress clay bricks from soil is far from new in the developing country, but for some unknownÃ reasons this technology doesnt seem to have made its brake through the developed world. There is a need to implement this new product of a low carbon footprint in the building industry. REFERENCES http://sleekfreak.ath.cx:81/3wdev/VITAHTML/SUBLEV/EN1/CLAYPROD.HTM /how_242553_.html www.ibstock.com/pdfs/technical/TIS16howbrickaremade http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/environment/soil-brick-making-machines-can-save-the-forests.html http://www.newdawnengineering.com/website/brickandtile/tbrick/ http://opus.bath.ac.uk/16170/1/papers/Paper%2031.pdf www.bia.org/bia/technotes/t9.html REPORT: Manufacturing of Bricks 9.12.2006 Publish: The Brick Industry Association www.gobrick.com/omnisam/common/getfile.cfm?file=/bia/technotes/t9 Access 20.03.2010 Careful humidity control Publish: Vaisala news 1998 Www. Vaisala.com Access 24.03.10 ABCs of making Adobe bricks Publish: College of agriculture and home economics New Mexico state university March 2003 www.aces.nmsu.edu Access 24.03.10 Websites Mineral information institute www.mii.org 16.03.10 Bright Hub www.brighthub.com 13.03.10 University College London www.es.ucl.ac.uk 13.03.10 Answer.com/reference answer www.answer.com 17.03.2010 How to make adobe bricks www.ehow.com 17.03.2010 How to make Adobe bricks www.doityourself.com 07.04.2010
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Plato on the Existence of Negative Forms The question of the origin and nature of evil in the world has preoccupied philosophers throughout history. The ancient philosopher Plato does not directly address this question in his writings, but it can be argued that the logic of his theory of forms demands the existence of forms that are negative in meaning, such as the evil and the bad. When discussing his theory of imitation, Plato alludes to the principle that whenever there are many things of the same nature, there is one form for that nature. In several passages, Plato makes mention of many negative things. It can be debated, however, whether or not the negative has a positive ontological character of its own for which there can be a form. The several senses in which an object can be considered negative must first be distinguished before the texts of Plato can be analyzed. It will be shown that, although Plato makes references in the Republic to a common nature amongst many negative things, the supposition of a negative form is not in harmony with the hierarchal structure of forms that depends on the good, which is also presented in the Republic. A solution to this problem will be presented and analyzed. In order to understand why it is argued that negative forms must exist according to Plato's logic, one must first understand the meaning of form for Plato. Plato thinks that forms are separate and eternal entities that exist apart from the sensible world. Plato thinks that objects in the sensible world imitate a particular form and that form makes them what they are. Plato writes, "As you know, we customarily hypothesize a single form in connection with each of the many things to which w... ...rendon Press), 167-9.  Ross, 168.  Ross, 168.  Plato, Statesman, trans. Seth Benardete (Chicage: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 262 d.  Plato, Republic, 491 d 3.  Plato, Republic, 608 e 3.  Plato, Republic, 609 a 4-7.  Plato, Republic, 610 b 4-6.  Plato, Republic, 382 b.  Plato, Republic, 476 a.  Plato, Republic, 507 b 10-11.  Plato, Republic, 509 b 11-c.  Plato, Republic, 508 c-e.  Plato, Republic, 508 b ? 509 a 3.  Plato, Republic, 509 b 7 - 7  Plato, Republic, 379 a 6 - c.  I.M. Crombie, An Examination of Plato?s Doctrines: Plato on Knowledge and Reality (New York: The Humanities Press), 283.  Crombie, 283.  Crombie, 284.  Plato, Statesman, 262 d.  Ross, 169.  Plato, Republic, 491 d 3.  Crombie, 284.